Sensation & Perception book

Chapter 1

THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS

    • The Stimulus
    • Electricity
    • Experience and Action 
    • Knowledge
      • DEMONSTRATION: Perceiving a Picture 

MEASURING PERCEPTION

    • Description
    • Recognition
      • METHOD: Recognition
    • Detection
      • METHOD: Determining the Absolute Threshold - Method of limits, adjustment and constant stimuli
      • METHOD: Determining the Difference Threshold - Weber's law
    • Magnitude Estimation - Perceiving magnitude (being aware a size or intensity of a stimuli)
      • METHOD: Magnitude Estimation - Steven's power law
    • Search

Chapter 2

NEURONS: CELLS THAT CREATE AND TRANSMIT ELECTRICAL SIGNALS

    • Structure of Neurons
    • Recording Electrical Signals in Neurons
  • Recording From a Neuron Chemical Basis of Action Potentials Basic Properties of Action Potentials Events at the Synapse,
    As positively charged sodium (Na+) flows into the axon, the inside of the neuron becomes more positive (rising phase of the action potential).
    As positively charged potassium (K+) flows out of the axon, the inside of the axon becomes more negative (fa
    lling phase of the action potential).
    The fiber’s charge returns to the resting level after the flow of Na+ and K+ has moved past the electrode.








Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters











NEURAL PROCESSING: EXCITATION,  INHIBITION, AND INTERACTIONS BETWEEN NEURONS

    • Excitation, Inhibition, and Neural Responding
    • Introduction to Receptive Fields
    • Determining a Neuron’s Receptive Field

THE SENSORY CODE: HOW THE ENVIRONMENT IS REPRESENTED BY THE FIRING OF NEURONS

    • Specificity Coding: Representation by the Firing of Single Neurons
    • Distributed Coding: Representation by the Firing of Groups of Neurons
    • Sparse Coding: Distributed Coding With Just a Few Neurons

THE MIND–BODY PROBLEM

Chapter 3

Steps of the perceptual process that occur in the retina:


Light is re! ected from an object into the eye. This light is focused to form an image of that object on the retina. Light, in a pattern that illuminates some receptors intensely and some dimly, is absorbed by the visual pigment molecules that pack the rod and cone outer segments. Chemical reactions in the outer segments transduce the light into electrical signals. As these electrical signals travel through the retina, they interact, excite, and inhibit, eventually reaching the ganglion cells, which because of this processing have center-surround receptive " elds on the retina. After being processed by the retina these electrical signals are sent out the back of the eye in " bers of the optic nerve.
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